This article needs additional citations for verification. The saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Quatuor de Saxophones PDF in 1840. C and F instruments when the saxophone is used in an orchestra.
Reconstitution par le Quatuor Academia
The saxophone was designed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker, flautist, and clarinetist. Born in Dinant and originally based in Brussels, he moved to Paris in 1842 to establish his musical instrument business. As an outgrowth of his work improving the bass clarinet, Sax began developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and the agility of a woodwind. He wanted it to overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown. Sax created an instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece and conical brass body.
Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, a 15-year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846. Although the instruments transposed at either F or C have been considered « orchestral », there is no evidence that Sax intended this. The C soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch. Thereafter, numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design and keywork. It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification. This extension is currently standard in almost all modern designs, along with other minor changes such as added keys for alternate fingerings. Using alternate fingerings allows better fluency on the instrument.
Alternate fingerings are often used for trilling, difficult musical passages, and interval jumps. Sax’s original keywork, which was based on the Triebert system 3 oboe for the left hand and the Boehm clarinet for the right, was simplistic and made playing certain legato passages and wide intervals extremely difficult to finger, so numerous developers added extra keys and alternate fingerings to make chromatic playing less difficult. Sax’s original design had two separate octave keys operated by the left thumb. A substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which the left thumb operates both tone holes with a single octave key, which is now universal on modern saxophones.
The modern layout of the saxophone emerged during the 1930s and 1940s, first with right-side bell keys introduced by C. Conn on baritones, then by King on altos and tenors. One of the most radical, however temporary, revisions of saxophone keywork was made in the 1950s by M. This enables a chromatic scale to be played over two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit. However, this keywork never gained much popularity, and is no longer in use. The saxophone consists of an approximately conical tube, usually of brass, flared at the tip to form a bell. The keys are activated by keytouches pressed by the fingers, either directly on the pad cup or connected to it with levers, either directly or with joints called « linkages.