Gustave Flaubert PDF

This Study Guide consists of approximately 37 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more – everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of The Necklace. Study Guide includes comprehensive information and analysis to help you understand the book. This detailed literature summary also contains Bibliography on The Necklace by Guy De Maupassant. More summaries and resources for teaching or gustave Flaubert PDF The Necklace.


Une biographie unanimement saluée par la critique (prix de la biographie du Point en 2009), par un grand spécialiste de Flaubert. De l’œuvre à l’existence, avec entre les deux, « une manière spéciale de vivre ».

2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. But in centuries past, mummies were put to a variety of inventive uses: for art and commerce, science and entertainment, and possibly even to provide paper. Many of these uses and abuses stemmed from the Egyptomania that gripped Europe and America throughout the 19th century, set off by Napoleon’s invasion of the country in 1798 and nourished by a string of amazing archeological discoveries. Read on for some lessons in just how disturbingly inventive our great-great-grandparents could be. FOR MEDICINE Strange as it may seem, people in early modern Europe frequently practiced a kind of cannibalism for health.

The belief may have come from ancients such as Pliny the Elder, who wrote that the bitumen used to embalm mummies offered healing powers. AT PARTIES Need a theme idea for your next get-together? Victorians and hold a mummy unrolling party, which is exactly what it sounds like. While the craze is sometimes overstated—it’s not like every aristocrat watched Tutankhamen’s cousin unwrapped over sherry in his drawing room—these parties were a not-uncommon feature of 19th century British life, especially among those who fancied themselves the more scholarly sort.

According to Rogers, mummy unwrapping as a social event really got going in Britain starting in the 1820s, thanks to a circus performer-turned-antiquities salesman named Giovanni Belzoni. Members of the upper class copied Pettigrew, and the idea spread, with unwrapping events held both at large venues and in private homes. Thebes to be unrolled at half-past two. Consider it the Victorian version of unboxing.

AS PAINT PIGMENT It sounds like an urban myth, but it isn’t: starting around the 16th century, a pigment called mummy brown, made from ground-up mummies, was a popular choice for European artists. Delacroix used it, as did British portraitist Sir William Beechey, and it was a special favorite of the Pre-Raphaelites. AS INTERIOR DECOR Trips to Egypt were so popular among the upper classes of the 19th century that mummies were often displayed back home as souvenirs, usually in the drawing room or study, and occasionally even in bedrooms. FOR PAPER This a contentious issue among those who study the history of papermaking, but according to some scholars, paper mills on the East Coast of the United States imported mummy wrappings as source material during the mid 19th century. By the way, a related story that mummies were burned for railroad fuel is almost certainly a joke dreamed up by Mark Twain. As Stage Props Mummies are a familiar symbol of romantic ghastliness in literature and horror movies, of course, but their use in stage magic is less well known today. Yet the same sense of exoticism and dread that made them work so well onscreen also made them effective as stage props.

It didn’t even matter whether they were real. In the 1920s, an elaborate fake known as « The Luxor Mummy » appeared in stage shows with a magician named Tampa. According to The New York Times, the mummy originally belonged to vaudeville theatre owner Alexander Pantages, « who claimed that it was a seer and prophet named Ra Ra Ra. FOR FERTILIZER Animals were mummified by the millions in ancient Egypt to provide offerings for the gods and goddesses. Ibis and baboons were sacred to Thoth, raptors to Horus, and cats to the goddess Bastet. AS FAKE RELICS After Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in 1431, her executioners were determined that no trace of her would remain—they burned her body a second time, then dumped what was left in the Seine. But in 1867, a jar labeled « Remains found under the stake of Joan of Arc, virgin of Orleans, » turned up in the attic of a Paris pharmacy.

FOR FUNDRAISING Massachusetts General Hospital was the site of the first public surgery using modern anesthetic, which took place in 1846 in an amphitheater that became known as the Ether Dome. But the place is also home to something you don’t usually see in a hospital—an Egyptian mummy. The well-preserved Padihershef arrived at Massachusetts General in 1823 as a gift from the city of Boston. In centuries past, mummies were put to a variety of inventive uses: art, commerce, science, entertainment, and possibly even paper making. Don’t feel too bad if you’ve ever struggled to get through James Joyce’s Ulysses or one of D. As Smithsonian reports, these thoughts were recorded in a journal that was passed around British literary circles that included Woolf and nine other writers in the early 20th century.

Titled Really and Truly: A Book of Literary Confessions, the book eventually ended up in novelist Margaret Kennedy’s possession. It was recently rediscovered by her grandson, William Mackesy, who, along with his cousin, is one of the literary executors of Kennedy’s estate. Then the names came into focus and our eyes popped. In addition to taking jabs at Lawrence and Joyce, one unnamed respondent called T. Eliot the worst living English poet as well as the worst living literary critic. In response to a prompt to name the dead author whose character they most disliked, the participants name-dropped Samuel Johnson, Oscar Wilde, George Meredith, Marcel Proust, and Lord Byron. This little activity wasn’t entirely petty, though.

Shakespeare, unsurprisingly, won the most votes for greatest literary genius. Homer, author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, received one vote. One writer who took the survey called T. Eliot the worst living English poet and worst living literary critic.