Initiation ritual of boys in Malawi. The ritual marks the passage from child to adult male, each subgroup having its customs and expectations. A rite of passage is a ceremony of the cultes et rites de passage en Macédoine PDF which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
It involves a significant change of status in society. Each larger society contains within it several distinctly separate groupings. In addition, all these groups break down into still smaller societies in subgroups. The population of a society belongs to multiple groups, some more important to the individual than others. Van Gennep uses the metaphor, « as a kind of house divided into rooms and corridors.
Van Gennep further distinguishes between « the secular » and « the sacred sphere. Theorizing that civilizations are arranged on a scale, implying that the lower levels represent « the simplest level of development, » he hypothesizes that « social groups in such a society likewise have magico-religious foundations. Many groups in modern industrial society practice customs that can be traced to an earlier sacred phase. The rest of Van Gennep’s book presents a description of rites of passage and an organization into types, although in the end he despairs of ever capturing them all: « It is but a rough sketch of an immense picture . He is able to find some universals, mainly two: « the sexual separation between men and women, and the magico-religious separation between the profane and the sacred. Rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation, as van Gennep described.
In the first phase, people withdraw from their current status and prepare to move from one place or status to another. There is often a detachment or « cutting away » from the former self in this phase, which is signified in symbolic actions and rituals. Having completed the rite and assumed their « new » identity, one re-enters society with one’s new status. Laboratory experiments have shown that severe initiations produce cognitive dissonance. It is theorized that such dissonance heightens group attraction among initiates after the experience, arising from internal justification of the effort used. The Hamar are known for their custom of « bull jumping, » which initiates a boy into manhood. Initiation rites are seen as fundamental to human growth and development as well as socialization in many African communities.
These rites function by ritually marking the transition of someone to full group membership. It also links individuals to the community and the community to the broader and more potent spiritual world. Rites of passage are diverse, and are found throughout many cultures around the world. Many western societal rituals may look like rites of passage but miss some of the important structural and functional components. However, in many Native and African-American communities, traditional rites of passage programs are conducted by community-based organizations such as Man Up Global. Typically the missing piece is the societal recognition and reincorporation phase. This section does not cite any sources.
Boot Camp and Officer Candidate School are rites of passage from civilian to military life. In the United States Navy’s Officer Candidate School and the United States Marine Corps, Drill Instructors manufacture stress as a form of training. Krypteia, a rite involving young Spartans, part of the agoge regime of Spartan education. Navy and Royal Navy, is a ceremony in which a naval officer throws a party for his shipmates upon receiving a promotion. Some academic circles such as dorms, fraternities, teams and other clubs practice hazing, ragging and fagging. White coat ceremony in medicine and pharmacy. Earlier seasons of the television series Survivor typically include a rite of passage prior to the final immunity challenge.
Though the specifics of this rite of passage vary based on the customs and traditions of the host country, most rites of passage include a lengthy walk to the final challenge along which the remaining castaways pass the torches of every eliminated contestant from that season. The Five Major African Initiation Rites Prof. Traditional Muslim Male Circumcision: Performed by Arabs, Turkish, Malaysian and Others of this faith ». The Encyclopedia of Malaysia Volume 10: Religions and Beliefs. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices: Religions and denominations. The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group.